Tag Archive cones

Amazing Eyes

Brown eyes 6.10.14We don’t often give our eyes as much thought as we should, that is until something goes wrong and our vision is affected. But when you learn more about eyes, you realize just how amazing they are. Here are a few facts you may enjoy:

1. Eyes began to develop 550 million years ago. The simplest eyes were patches of photoreceptor protein in single-celled animals.

2. Your eyes start to develop two weeks after you are conceived.

3. The entire length of all the eyelashes shed by a human in their life is over 98 feet with each eye lash having a life span of about 5 months.

4. To protect our eyes they are positioned in a hollowed eye socket, while eyebrows prevent sweat dripping into your eyes and eyelashes keep dirt out of your eyes.

5. Your eyeballs stay the same size from birth to death, while your nose and ears continue to grow.

6. An eye is composed of more than 2 million working parts.

7. Only 1/6 of the human eyeball is exposed.

8. Corneas are the only tissues that don’t have blood.

9. The human eye weights approximately just under an ounce and is about an inch across.

10. An eye cannot be transplanted. More than 1 million nerve fibers connect each eye to the brain and currently we’re not able to reconstruct those connections.

11. 80% of our memories are determined by what we see.

12. Eyes heal quickly. With proper care, it takes only about 48 hours to repair a minor corneal scratch.

13. There are about 39 million people that are blind around the world.

14. 80% of vision problems worldwide are avoidable or even curable.

15. Humans and dogs are the only species known to seek visual cues from another individual’s eyes, and dogs only do this when interacting with humans.

16. A fingerprint has 40 unique characteristics, but an iris has 256, a reason retina scans are increasingly being used for security purposes.

17. People who are blind can see their dreams if they weren’t born blind.

18. “Red eye” occurs in photos because light from the flash bounces off the back of the eye. The choroid is located behind the retina and is rich in blood vessels, which make it appear red on film.

19. 80% of what we learn is through our eyes.

20. Eyes are the second most complex organ after the brain.


Susan DeRemerSusan DeRemer, CFRE
Vice President of Development
Discovery Eye Foundation

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Search for Genes Causing Eye Disease

Genes: GET THE ENTIRE STORY HERE

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retina cons and rods

Genes and Vision loss.  The retina is a thin, light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. It captures light and converts it into a chemical signal which travels to the brain, ultimately registering as vision. The retina is actually part of the central nervous system and is considered part of the brain. The ‘photoreceptors’ or light-sensitive nerve cells of the retina, are divided into the rod cells and the cone cells, reflecting their actual shapes.

There are about 120 million rod cells spread throughout the retina. These are responsible for black and white vision, and allow vision in low-light conditions. Then the six million cone cells are located in the centre of the retina, in an area called the macula, and are responsible for colour vision and detailed central vision.

A group of diseases collectively called inherited retinal degenerative disorders are caused by genetic defects which cause vision loss. This may result in total blindness. These disorders are caused by genetic changes or mutations and are inherited within families.

These genetic mutations result in different disorders. Gene defects affecting mainly the rod photoreceptors cause retinitis pigmentosa. As a result patients experience night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, causing a tunnel-like vision. Genetic mutations causing a primary loss of cone photoreceptors result in Stargardt disease or macular degeneration and cause a loss of central vision.

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Cone Rod Dystrohpy: What it is, and can you help?

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CR dystro_XLinked_D_F

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Information on diet, nutrition & self-help options

Rod cone dystrophy is expressed as a number of inherited eye problems, due to the common cause of malfunctioning of the cone and rod photoreceptors. These photoreceptors change light into electric nerve messages that transfer to our brain via our optic nerve. Cones are the photoreceptor cells which allow us to see fine details and color and comprise our central vision. Rods are for low light vision and permit night and peripheral vision. The malfunctioning photoreceptor cells be problematic starting in childhood, or may lose their functionality with time.

Self Help

Since we consider most eye conditions to be a reflection of the health of the whole body, lifestyle choices and diet can play a major factor in getting and maintaining good vision. Below are some recommendations:

Supplementation with research-proven nutrients and eyedrops that have been found to be helpful to protect vision.
See our recommendations for healthy eyes for details.
Eye exercises can help to bring energy and blood to the eyes, thereby helping to drain away toxins or congestion to the eyes. These are free general eye exercises and acupressure points for overall eye health.
It is possible to slow down vision loss and possibly maintain healthy vision:

Energy moving modalities such as acupuncture and microcurrent stimulation may be helpful.
See all retinal support vitamins & supplements
Rod and cone photoreceptors are good at seeing different things. Here are some examples:

Rods are good at ‘seeing’:

things that move but only in black and white
seeing in the dark
seeing things on the sides of us (peripheral vision)
Cones are good at ‘seeing’:

things that are still
fine details of thing in daylight
objects in color
things in fine detail including reading, looking at photographs and recognizing faces
Symptoms

gradual loss of night vision
gradual loss of peripheral vision
sensitivity to bright light
vision is best at dusk
errors in color vision in both red-green and blue-yellow ranges
Young children with Rod-Cone Dystrophy may develop:

Fast ‘to and fro’ movements of the eyes. This is referred to Nystagmus.
‘Roving’ eye movements where the eyes appear to slowly wander around not fixing and staying still on any objects.
‘Eye Poking’ where the child touches their eyes with their fingers.
Parents will often notice these signs by the way the child acts.

Causes

There are many different causes of Rod-Cone Dystrophies. Often one does not know why a child has a Rod-Cone Dystrophy. When no cause can be identified this is called Idiopathic.

Most Rod-Cone Dystrophies are genetically based and result from “misprints” in a child’s genes, and are typically carried forward from the parents’ genes although sometimes by chance a new mistake occurs in the child’s genes and the parents’ genes are normal.

Conventional Treatment

There is no good conventional way to stop the sight loss in Rod-Cone Dystrophy.

Related Conditions

Other eye conditions where the rod and cone photoreceptor cells do not work properly include: Leber’s Amaurosis, Retinitis Pigmentosa, Usher’s Syndrome and Batten’s Disease.

Synonyms: Retinal Cone Degeneration, Retinal Cone-Rod Dystrophy, Cone Rod Dystrophy, Combined Cone-Rod Degeneration, Cone Rod Degeneration, Progressive Cone Rod Dystrophy, Retinal Cone Dystrophy, Retinal Cone Rod Dystrophy

Research

Though there are no specific studies on nutrients and this particular condition, there is extensive research on nutrients such as lutein, zeaxanthin and bilberry among others that have been shown to be essential for the health of the rod-cone structures. Based on these studies, Dr. Grossman has selected specific nutrients and products to help support this part of the eye and overall eye health. Some research on macular degenerationor retinitis pigmentosa may be applicable.
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Cheers

Will

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